Information and communication technology (ICT) has become a major driver of changes in economic, social, public and private life, leading to emergence of the Information Society and Digital Economy. Identification of key trends and analysis of transformation processes can only be made on the basis of reliable statistical data. Development of relevant international statistics play a leading role here hence, via establishing and updating relevant standards, it allows to measure development of the Information Society in a global scale, and benchmark positions of individual countries in the worldwide economic environment. ICT indicators are based on general (definitions and classifications, similar data collection methodologies) and specialised statistical standards, whereas harmonised methodology provides highly compatible indicators for different countries. The objective of this paper is to present a systemic overview of internationally accepted definitions of main ICT indicators based on accumulated methodological standards and practical experience.
Несмотря на свою относительную «молодость» умная специализация, представляющая собой правила по выбору приоритетов инновационного развития, оказалась чрезвычайно востребованным подходом и быстро вошла в сферу интересов экономической политики. В странах ЕС наличие инновационных стратегий, разработанных с использованием методик умной специализации, является одним из условий получения регионами субсидий из структурных и инвестиционных фондов. Ее принципы получили отражение в стратегиях инновационного развития в Австралии, Южной Корее, Аргентине, Бразилии, Колумбии, Коста-Рике, Мексике, Перу, Уругвае, Эквадоре и Чили.
Какие уровни государственного управления должны быть вовлечены в процесс разработки стратегий умной специализации? Какие факторы должны стать предметом особого внимания при использовании её принципов? Для ответа на эти и другие вопросы в статье представлены результаты анализа стратегий инновационного развития семи субъектов Российской Федерации с применением адаптированного инструмента RIS3 Self-Assessment Wheel.
Показано, что традиционные региональные инновационные стратегии в России отвечают большинству критериев умной специализации, по крайней мере, формально. Вместе с тем, при отсутствии единых правил выбора, проверки и синхронизации приоритетов, общей аналитической базы данных (содержащей, в частности информацию о региональных приоритетах и проектах), взаимных оценочных процедур даже регионам с высоким инновационным потенциалом сложно формировать и реализовывать уникальные стратегии, полностью соответствующие принципам умной специализации.
Science, technology and innovation are crucial driving forces in the development of a country and a nation and of the entire human society at large. The competition in comprehensive national strength, in essence, is the competition in science, technology and innovation. In the backdrop of globalization, a country which has strong science, technology and innovation capabilities is more advantageously positioned in the division of labor in industries and better able to create new industries and can own more advanced intellectual properties needed to achieve further development. Science, technology and innovation hold the golden key to discovering new fountainheads of growth and unlocking dormant growth potential. Although the global economy remains sluggish overall, a new round of scientific, technological and industrial revolution is creating new historic opportunities as new concepts and new sectors such as “Internet+”, 3D printing and smart manufacturing emerge and new technologies keep coming up, especially in artificial intelligence, information technology, life science and biotechnology, opening up unprecedented opportunities and development impetus, also with a massive potential of transforming traditional industries. In addition, science, technology and innovation play an irreplaceable basic role in the effort to respond to global challenges and can not only effectively promote the addressing of global challenges such as climate change, food shortage, resource depletion and poverty but also accelerate the achievement of the goals set forth in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development for the benefit of the entire humankind.
Wars have been a part of humanity since prehistoric times, and are expected to remain an important component of future human societies. Since the beginning of the history wars have evolved in parallel with the changes in Society, Technology, Economy, Environment, Politics and Values (STEEPV). The changing circumstances unavoidably affect the characteristics of warfare through its motivations, shape and size. Armies have adapted themselves to these changing characteristics of warfare through Revolutions in Military Affairs (RMAs) by introducing new military concepts and technologies. Based on the overview of the evolution of military technologies and concepts as a response to changing conditions, the aim of the present study is to anticipate what and how future technologies and concepts will shape warfare and drive impending RMAs. To answer this question, first the RMA literature is reviewed within a broader historical context to understand the extent to which military concepts and technologies affected the RMAs. Then, a time-based technological trend analysis is conducted through the analysis of military patents to understand the impact of technological developments on military concepts. Following the historical analyses, two scenarios are developed for the future of military R&D based on ‘concept-driven’ and ‘technology-driven’ factors. The article is concluded with a discussion about the implications of future scenarios for military R&D, and likely RMAs through the changes of concepts and technologies, and possible consequences such as transformations in organizational structures of armies, new skill and capacity requirements, military education systems, and decision-making processes.
There is broad consensus that economic development and society welfare correlate with the effectiveness and efficiency of countries’ science, technology, and innovation infrastructure. There is a broad range of actors active in all fields with diverging ambitions, missions, and aims striving for scientific, technological, and innovation excellence. Still one actor alone faces severe challenges in the respective global competition which is why increasingly clusters are formed and quipped with professional management. This raises the question if knowledge diffusion channels function more effective and efficient in organically grown self-organized channels or if targeted public policy intervention is needed to enhance these channels by means of attached cluster management. The article discusses the major conceptual features of cluster management and spillovers and the resulting implications for cluster management activities.
This article presents the results of a survey of competitive intelligence (CI) practices in European firms. In comparing the results to a similar 2006 global study and a 2006 European CI study, it appears that the breadth of applications for CI has grown well beyond competitors to include customer related intelligence, technology, market, etc. Innovation is driving much intelligence activity, in particular research and development (R&D) and new product development decisions. CI is more formalised now in European firms than it was in 2006. The study also found similarities between corporate foresight and CI in terms of objectives (development and maintenance of competitive advantage, help with decision making) and analytical techniques with scenarios being among the more frequently used analytical techniques along with STEEP and other environmental analysis in both corporate foresight studies and the CI study.
Technology foresight has been increasingly undertaken by developing countries to identify technologies whose adoption might serve as a platform for future economic growth. However, foresight activities have not, by and large, resulted in well-developed policy initiatives. Three factors are relevant for improvement. First, foresight activities would benefit from being more informed by the convergence literature and global convergence experience over the past several decades, and should therefore incorporate organically the concepts of absorptive capacity and technology gap into foresight exercises. Second, certain preconditions – in particular the existence of a functional national innovation system – enhance the likelihood that foresight exercises will be successful. Third, in order to achieve wide buy-in and promote the sustainability of initiatives generated by the foresight activity, developing countries are advised to consult widely in the foresight process. Policies emanating from foresight activities should additionally address two core challenges: a) a clear definition of those technologies that should be developed internally vs. those that should be sourced from abroad and b) identification of the internal capabilities to be developed in conjunction with those technologies targeted for acquisition from abroad.
Purpose – Foresight is frequently used to establish science and technology investment priorities and develop corresponding technology and innovation support programmes. In the light of technology and innovation policy, many individual Foresight studies are undertaken which are separate and little linked with the broader policy scope and ambition. This paper aims to look at an approach towards a consistent Foresight system which is linked closely to science, technology and innovation policy.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides an in-depth case study of the Russian Foresight system. The case study is based on desk research and extensive experience of the authors with the system.
Findings – Russia has developed a systematic approach towards organising Foresight which involves and serves multiple stakeholders, including government, ministries, federal and regional agencies, higher education institutions, public research institutes, state-owned companies and private businesses and a large range of associations. Under the auspicious of a dedicated commission, targeted Foresight is undertaken with clearly defined scope for each. The paper finds that the Russian system is unique in its organisational structure and in the integration of Foresight with science, technology and innovation policy measures.
Originality/value – The paper describes all facets of the Russian Foresight system which has not been done before. It also outlines the practical steps to further develop and leverage the system.
Since the work of Schumpeter, entrepreneurship has been regarded as a concept that is in close relation to innovation. However, recent country level investigations show that technology innovation and new business creation can be regarded as two separate phenomena. In this paper we provide an explanation for the above contradiction through the distinguishing between two types of entrepreneurship, necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship. Building on opportunity theory and rational choice theory, we investigate the influence of both types of entrepreneurship on country-level innovation, and furthermore, pay particular attention to the interaction between opportunity entrepreneurship and the amount of opportunities available. We find that necessity entrepreneurship is inversely related to country-level innovation, whereas opportunity entrepreneurship is positively linked to technological progress. The positive effect of opportunity entrepreneurship, however, diminishes with an increased amount of entrepreneurial opportunities. This interaction indicates that opportunity availability is an important element of a country’s entrepreneurship environment.