Recent studies have substantially enhanced our understanding of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in entrepreneurship—articulating the theoretical relevance of ADHD-type traits in entrepreneurship and confirming the positive linkages between ADHD symptoms/diagnosis and entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. However, how and why some people with ADHD symptoms run successful ventures, while other entrepreneurs fail to perform well, is still not well established. Our study builds on a Gestalt perspective that integrates person–environment fit and broaden-and-build theorizing, and proposes that strong positive emotions enable entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms (at the subclinical level) to mitigate/reinforce the effect of ADHD’s trait-specific weaknesses/strengths to achieve entrepreneurial performance. Relying on fuzzy-set methodology, our findings indicate that for entrepreneurs with ADHD symptoms, entrepreneurial performance occurs when they simultaneously experience passion for founding and developing. This passion configuration is unique to successful ADHD-type entrepreneurs. As such, this study offers novel theoretical and empirical insights as well as implications for practitioners.
Plain English Summary Do people with ADHD perform well in entrepreneurship? Our research shows how ADHD symptoms relate to entrepreneurial performance finding that passion is important. Entrepreneurs who are highly and thereby ambidextrously passionate for growing their businesses and for founding activities while lacking intense positive feelings for coming up with new ideas can benefit from ADHD. These results are important for people with ADHD and their loved ones.
Годовые доходы табачной индустрии в мировом масштабе составляют сотни миллиардов долларов, при этом от курения ежегодно умирают миллионы человек. Электронные сигареты задумывались как менее вредная альтернатива традиционным табачным изделиям, позволяющая потребителям вдыхать никотин без побочных продуктов горения табака, существенно снижая риски для здоровья. Эти и подобные разработки обладают потенциалом подрывной инновации, способной радикально изменить существующие рынки. В их создании активно участвуют и новички, и известные табачные производители. Однако эффекты таких продуктов для здоровья пока мало изучены и неоднозначны, к тому же все чаще появляются сообщения о массовых заболеваниях, вызываемых вейпингом. Как следствие, большинство стран и международных институтов, включая Всемирную организацию здравоохранения, занимают негативную позицию в отношении электронных сигарет. Станут ли электронные сигареты «троянским конем», который подорвет усилия по борьбе против курения, или окажутся эффективным средством отучить пользователей от вредной привычки, открывающим для общества дорогу к лучшему будущему? В статье обсуждаются будущие последствия для здоровья от употребления электронных сигарет в сравнении с традиционными, а также более широкие проблемы, связанные с данной подрывной инновацией. Обозначены направления дальнейших исследований, в том числе с применением инструментов Форсайта.
The world economy relies on access to industrial metals, oil and gas for maintaining its critical industrial infrastructure. Although demand is likely to remain high, the most accessible deposits have been depleted. Future capacity growth will be facilitated through further technological developments. Russia as a leading producer is paying great attention to strengthening its competitive edge in global markets. This paper reports on a large-scale technology foresight study of the Russian extractive sector (including oil and gas), which combined expert-based foresight activities with statistical analyses and text-mining techniques based on artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies. The presented methodology helped to link the technologies to dominant discussions (e.g. climate change vs rural development) and to flag key trends. Furthermore, quantitative estimates can be identified quickly. The study’s methodology should function as an example for similar studies to support policy planning and investment decisions based on text-mining techniques.
This article seeks to undertake a critical assessment of the changing position of public science in the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the countries on the periphery of European research. These countries are driven by new innovation paradigm based on entrepreneurship, which are implemented within the European Smart specialization strategy (S3). This article argues that S3 is widely implemented in the cohesion countries and, while it provides substantial resources for science, technology, and innovation, it fails to provide sustainability in the public research sector. This has direct implications for policies concerning innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. In order to prove the thesis, the article provides theoretical argumentation for emergence of a new innovation paradigm, driven by the rise of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, its incorporation into S3, and a consequent retreat of science policy in favor of entrepreneurial policy. The empirical analysis is focused on the funding trends seen in the business and public research sectors over the last decade (2008–2017), which have clearly shown that S3 has not contributed, despite expectations, to an increase in public expenditure for science. This signifies S3's neglect of public research within entrepreneurial ecosystems and challenges the ability of S3 to reduce wide disparities in research and innovation performance across the European Union. This ultimately endangers the innovation potential of the entrepreneurial ecosystem itself.
Portable ramps are generally used by wheelchair users, provide temporary solution to increase accessibility in their daily lives. Portable ramps should allow for modifications in terms of weight, length, load bearing capacity, ease of handling, storage and further design parameters. Different types of portable ramps can be found in the market; however, their modifications cannot go beyond just length modification, or they allow to select just some restricted width options. However, portable ramps are quite suitable for mass customization concept which helps to satisfy customer while being involved in design step. This study aims to determine the wheelchair users’ expectations and correspondingly to offer a smart mass customization design tool which potential users are able to interact with easily. To this end, a case study is conducted with a rollable ramp which is designed and developed within the scope of 1512 – Entrepreneurship Multi-phase Programme (Teknogirişim Sermaye Desteği Programı) of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). The methodology and its implementation are described elaborately, and example of a parametric smart customization tool design are illustrated in this study. First, the preliminary study is explained briefly. Afterward, the desired modification parameters are determined with literature and patent survey as well as observation and interviews with the potential users. After systematic review and evaluation of user experiences, the model is assessed.
The High Technology Small Firms (HTSF) conference is a “boutique” conference, small compared to thematically broader entrepreneurship conferences such as the Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research conference (BKERC) and the Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business conference (RENT), but specialized on the topics of the emergence and the management of HTSFs.
This paper focuses on the practices, assessment approaches, procedures, and applied aspects of competitive intelligence (CI). The study relies upon a survey of CI practitioners conducted in 2019 and a comparison of its results with a similar survey in 2006. It was found that companies spend the time devoted to this activity mainly on processes that go beyond collecting information, including planning, analysis, communications, and management. Most enterprises have official divisions and profile managers. The results are used to perform a variety of strategic and tactical tasks. The main sources of information are the Internet, company employees, customers, and industry experts. Compared to 2006, a new key resource has emerged — social networks. Of the analytical methods, SWOT analysis and the study of competitors are most often used. Several channels of communication are used simultaneously to disseminate the received information, mainly email and presentations are used. Key performance criteria are customer satisfaction and the number of decisions made based on the information gathered. A comparative analysis revealed that over the period separating the surveys of 2006 and 2019, the function of the CR has become more formalized. The share of companies with centralized divisions and CI managers has grown. Currently, this activity more often goes beyond the simple profiling and evaluation of competitors. Technology assessment, economic, and political analysis are more actively practiced.
This paper aims to provide a detailed case study of a corporate foresight for innovation (CFI) project done by the Higher School of Economics’ (HSE) (Moscow, Russia) corporate foresight (CF) unit for a large state-owned Russian service company. It demonstrates how CFI methods lead to recommendations and how these recommendations result in decisions.
Drawing from being part of the project team, review of the project documents and interviews, the case describes a multi-phased CFI project which incorporated several CF methods. Techniques used for the project itself included grand challenges and trend analysis, analysis of best practices through use of benchmarking and horizon scanning, interviews, expert panels, wild card and weak signals analysis, cross impact analysis, SWOT and backcasting. The project used a broad-base of secondary information, expert panels consisting of company experts and HSE CF team personnel, interviews with senior management and an extensive literature review using HSE’s propriety iFORA system.
In all 17 CFI recommendation and over 100 implementation recommendations were made; 94 per cent of the CFI recommendations were accepted with most implemented at the time this case was written. The case also identifies five enabling factors that collectively both helped the CFI project and led to a high rate of recommendation acceptance and one factor that hindered CFI project success.
The case study provides detailed information and insight that can help others in conducting CF for innovation projects and establishes a link between CF methods and innovation-based recommendations and subsequent decisions.
In-depth case studies that show academe and practitioners how CFI leads to recommendations and is linked to subsequent decisions have been identified as a gap in the literature. This paper therefore seeks to address this need by presenting a detailed CF case for a corporate innovation project.
Due to the recent rise in economic development the family sizes in developing countries have become small. This phenomenon demands several policy considerations. Is India ready for it? In this perspective, the paper investigates the impact of a higher level of economic development on average household size in India from 1991 to 2011. Variables such as a higher level of education, health outcomes, the extent of inequality, and urbanization have a negative effect on the average household size. The lower level of poverty is associated with lower level family size in the long run, whereas, infrastructure has a mixed effect. Results show that different religious and social groups have an effect on the family size in India. The results are consistent in state and household level analysis and conclude that a higher level of economic development reduces the family size. Smaller family size faces several problems such as child-rearing, higher divorce rates due to marital conflicts, degradation of children's mental health, land and property disputes, and a low transfer of financial support from children to elderly parents. Therefore, not only the government needs to take cognizance and solve these problems, but also needs to find an appropriate balance between work and family, which is missing currently. This lesson can be useful for many other developing countries to cope up with the reduction in family sizes.
E-Government is a global trend with far-reaching benefits if implemented in the optimal way. All nations, irrespective of whether they are considered developed or developing economies, invest in the development of strategies furthering their e-government agenda. While e-government has attracted extensive interest for over a decade, leading to a maturing field, small European Union (EU) members have some particularities that must be taken into account. This research focuses on the critical success factors of e-government adoption, using the Republic of Cyprus as a case study. These findings show that the financial position of a nation and its e-readiness level, as well as the infrastructure facilities and technological innovations for effective knowledge management and communication, political and legal frameworks, are key factors that influence the level of e-government adoption. Furthermore, organizational and institutional aspects, as well as the socio-cultural characteristics, should not be underestimated, as these factors are crucial barriers to e-government adoption. Finally, the specific country's environmental cognition and consciousness is found to be more influential in this case than what literature on other cases suggest.