Годовые доходы табачной индустрии в мировом масштабе составляют сотни миллиардов долларов, при этом от курения ежегодно умирают миллионы человек. Электронные сигареты задумывались как менее вредная альтернатива традиционным табачным изделиям, позволяющая потребителям вдыхать никотин без побочных продуктов горения табака, существенно снижая риски для здоровья. Эти и подобные разработки обладают потенциалом подрывной инновации, способной радикально изменить существующие рынки. В их создании активно участвуют и новички, и известные табачные производители. Однако эффекты таких продуктов для здоровья пока мало изучены и неоднозначны, к тому же все чаще появляются сообщения о массовых заболеваниях, вызываемых вейпингом. Как следствие, большинство стран и международных институтов, включая Всемирную организацию здравоохранения, занимают негативную позицию в отношении электронных сигарет. Станут ли электронные сигареты «троянским конем», который подорвет усилия по борьбе против курения, или окажутся эффективным средством отучить пользователей от вредной привычки, открывающим для общества дорогу к лучшему будущему? В статье обсуждаются будущие последствия для здоровья от употребления электронных сигарет в сравнении с традиционными, а также более широкие проблемы, связанные с данной подрывной инновацией. Обозначены направления дальнейших исследований, в том числе с применением инструментов Форсайта.
The world economy relies on access to industrial metals, oil and gas for maintaining its critical industrial infrastructure. Although demand is likely to remain high, the most accessible deposits have been depleted. Future capacity growth will be facilitated through further technological developments. Russia as a leading producer is paying great attention to strengthening its competitive edge in global markets. This paper reports on a large-scale technology foresight study of the Russian extractive sector (including oil and gas), which combined expert-based foresight activities with statistical analyses and text-mining techniques based on artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies. The presented methodology helped to link the technologies to dominant discussions (e.g. climate change vs rural development) and to flag key trends. Furthermore, quantitative estimates can be identified quickly. The study’s methodology should function as an example for similar studies to support policy planning and investment decisions based on text-mining techniques.
This article seeks to undertake a critical assessment of the changing position of public science in the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the countries on the periphery of European research. These countries are driven by new innovation paradigm based on entrepreneurship, which are implemented within the European Smart specialization strategy (S3). This article argues that S3 is widely implemented in the cohesion countries and, while it provides substantial resources for science, technology, and innovation, it fails to provide sustainability in the public research sector. This has direct implications for policies concerning innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. In order to prove the thesis, the article provides theoretical argumentation for emergence of a new innovation paradigm, driven by the rise of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, its incorporation into S3, and a consequent retreat of science policy in favor of entrepreneurial policy. The empirical analysis is focused on the funding trends seen in the business and public research sectors over the last decade (2008–2017), which have clearly shown that S3 has not contributed, despite expectations, to an increase in public expenditure for science. This signifies S3's neglect of public research within entrepreneurial ecosystems and challenges the ability of S3 to reduce wide disparities in research and innovation performance across the European Union. This ultimately endangers the innovation potential of the entrepreneurial ecosystem itself.
Portable ramps are generally used by wheelchair users, provide temporary solution to increase accessibility in their daily lives. Portable ramps should allow for modifications in terms of weight, length, load bearing capacity, ease of handling, storage and further design parameters. Different types of portable ramps can be found in the market; however, their modifications cannot go beyond just length modification, or they allow to select just some restricted width options. However, portable ramps are quite suitable for mass customization concept which helps to satisfy customer while being involved in design step. This study aims to determine the wheelchair users’ expectations and correspondingly to offer a smart mass customization design tool which potential users are able to interact with easily. To this end, a case study is conducted with a rollable ramp which is designed and developed within the scope of 1512 – Entrepreneurship Multi-phase Programme (Teknogirişim Sermaye Desteği Programı) of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). The methodology and its implementation are described elaborately, and example of a parametric smart customization tool design are illustrated in this study. First, the preliminary study is explained briefly. Afterward, the desired modification parameters are determined with literature and patent survey as well as observation and interviews with the potential users. After systematic review and evaluation of user experiences, the model is assessed.
The High Technology Small Firms (HTSF) conference is a “boutique” conference, small compared to thematically broader entrepreneurship conferences such as the Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research conference (BKERC) and the Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business conference (RENT), but specialized on the topics of the emergence and the management of HTSFs.
This paper aims to provide a detailed case study of a corporate foresight for innovation (CFI) project done by the Higher School of Economics’ (HSE) (Moscow, Russia) corporate foresight (CF) unit for a large state-owned Russian service company. It demonstrates how CFI methods lead to recommendations and how these recommendations result in decisions.
Drawing from being part of the project team, review of the project documents and interviews, the case describes a multi-phased CFI project which incorporated several CF methods. Techniques used for the project itself included grand challenges and trend analysis, analysis of best practices through use of benchmarking and horizon scanning, interviews, expert panels, wild card and weak signals analysis, cross impact analysis, SWOT and backcasting. The project used a broad-base of secondary information, expert panels consisting of company experts and HSE CF team personnel, interviews with senior management and an extensive literature review using HSE’s propriety iFORA system.
In all 17 CFI recommendation and over 100 implementation recommendations were made; 94 per cent of the CFI recommendations were accepted with most implemented at the time this case was written. The case also identifies five enabling factors that collectively both helped the CFI project and led to a high rate of recommendation acceptance and one factor that hindered CFI project success.
The case study provides detailed information and insight that can help others in conducting CF for innovation projects and establishes a link between CF methods and innovation-based recommendations and subsequent decisions.
In-depth case studies that show academe and practitioners how CFI leads to recommendations and is linked to subsequent decisions have been identified as a gap in the literature. This paper therefore seeks to address this need by presenting a detailed CF case for a corporate innovation project.
Due to the recent rise in economic development the family sizes in developing countries have become small. This phenomenon demands several policy considerations. Is India ready for it? In this perspective, the paper investigates the impact of a higher level of economic development on average household size in India from 1991 to 2011. Variables such as a higher level of education, health outcomes, the extent of inequality, and urbanization have a negative effect on the average household size. The lower level of poverty is associated with lower level family size in the long run, whereas, infrastructure has a mixed effect. Results show that different religious and social groups have an effect on the family size in India. The results are consistent in state and household level analysis and conclude that a higher level of economic development reduces the family size. Smaller family size faces several problems such as child-rearing, higher divorce rates due to marital conflicts, degradation of children's mental health, land and property disputes, and a low transfer of financial support from children to elderly parents. Therefore, not only the government needs to take cognizance and solve these problems, but also needs to find an appropriate balance between work and family, which is missing currently. This lesson can be useful for many other developing countries to cope up with the reduction in family sizes.
E-Government is a global trend with far-reaching benefits if implemented in the optimal way. All nations, irrespective of whether they are considered developed or developing economies, invest in the development of strategies furthering their e-government agenda. While e-government has attracted extensive interest for over a decade, leading to a maturing field, small European Union (EU) members have some particularities that must be taken into account. This research focuses on the critical success factors of e-government adoption, using the Republic of Cyprus as a case study. These findings show that the financial position of a nation and its e-readiness level, as well as the infrastructure facilities and technological innovations for effective knowledge management and communication, political and legal frameworks, are key factors that influence the level of e-government adoption. Furthermore, organizational and institutional aspects, as well as the socio-cultural characteristics, should not be underestimated, as these factors are crucial barriers to e-government adoption. Finally, the specific country's environmental cognition and consciousness is found to be more influential in this case than what literature on other cases suggest.
Drawing upon the resource-based view and the ability-motivation-opportunity theory, we examined how green human resource management interplays on to the linkages amongst green transformational leadership, green innovation and environmental performance. Using a survey questionnaire, we collected triadic data from 309 manufacturing sector small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We used covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine hypotheses in this study. Results of the study suggest that green HRM practices mediates the influence of green transformational leadership on green innovation. We also found that green HRM indirectly through green innovation influences firm's environmental performance. Overall, the findings of our study support all hypotheses of direct and indirect effects and have several theoretical and practical implications. Finally, our study significantly advances theory and suggests that HRM-performance relationship neither depends upon the additive effect of green transformational leadership and green innovation as antecedent and mediator, respectively, nor on their interactive effect but a mix of both combinational forms (ie., additive and interactive) to affect firm environmental performance. Overall, our study contributes and advances the previous studies wherein in leadership plays critical role to influence the HRM practices and that in turn to predict green innovation in the organization.
The purpose of this study is to discuss the possibility of setting up a platform for inclusive policymaking process drawing upon the blockchain concept. The study posits that blockchain also has great potentials in non-financial applications, such as in policymaking, where there is a need for bottom-up approaches with more decentralized, distributed and evidence-based processes.
The study makes use of an analogy-based creative design methodology. The design science paradigm has its roots in engineering and the sciences of the artificial (Simon, 1996). As a problem-solving paradigm for solving complex engineering issues, design science seeks to create innovations that define the ideas, practices, technical capabilities and products through which the analysis, design, implementation and use of information systems can be effectively and efficiently accomplished. In the present study, the policy development theories and the logic of blockchain are synthesized to prepare a task model for the “IdeaChain” concept as a platform for creating, sharing and validating novel ideas as well as converting them into policies or new ventures through the funding mechanisms.
The IdeaChain concept is designed and demonstrated through its use in the domain of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy, which can be extended to cover all innovative activities linking the whole process from their emergence, funding, development, implementation and impact upon policy.
Blockchain is mostly discussed in literature with its impact on financial sector. IdeaChain is the first attempt to explore the potentials of blockchain in STI policymaking.
Industrial design as a driver for innovation is increasingly attracting attention throughout different disciplines. In order to switch from the oil-led development model to an innovation-driven economy, Russia attempts to strengthen its manufacturing industry through support policies for engineering and industrial design capabilities. The programme ‘Development of engineering activities and industrial design in Russia’ is part of the larger initiative for advancing manufacturing and raising its competitiveness which started in 2014. The paper builds on very recent data and interviews with key companies to study the effectiveness of these policies. We point out a series of structural weaknesses of industrial design in Russia in general and find that the industrial design policy in Russia largely remains non-systemic and fragmented.
The “policy mix” concept has gained popularity among science, technology and innovation policy communities over the past two decades in a context of growing policy complexity and need for policy evidence. Pressing societal challenges are also prompting governments to rethink policy making in order to better align public intervention across policy domains and leverage the transformative potential of system innovations. Governments faced multiple obstacles in implementing a policy mix approach in policy making and evaluation. Based on a comparative analysis of international STI policy repositories, a conceptual framework is proposed, as well as structuring principles and operational guidelines for mapping the composition of a policy mix, identifying interactions among components and translating the mapping into measurement. In that view, a range of new policy mix metrics is introduced. Finally, the discussion focuses on the need for moving towards a new data management paradigm and enlarging the measurement mix.
This paper investigates the association between internal barriers to innovation and the propensity of technology-based SMEs to cooperate with universities and research institutes (URIs). We examine empirically two types of internal company barriers – financial and knowledge obstacles to innovation. The data source is the latest edition of the Brazilian Innovation Survey (PINTEC). We analyse the full sample of technology-based SMEs as well as the subsamples of high-tech manufacturing companies and knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS). Financial obstacles are shown to be strongly related to the propensity of KIBS to collaborate with URIs. Knowledge obstacles are moderately related to the propensity of high-tech manufacturing SMEs to collaborate with URIs. We conclude that while URIs have other important roles in the techno-economic system, their perceived contribution to alleviating internal innovation barriers for technology-based SMEs may be less prominent than policy decision-makers in emerging economies may expect.